Even before the launch of the global computer network, there is already a vision of intelligent communication objects. five years ago.
With the development of the Internet, all intelligent signals are connected. i. e. , software)
Around the world, many other terms related to the idea and practice of connecting everything have emerged, including machinesto-machine (M2M)
Radio frequency identification (RFID), context-
Perceptual Computing, wearable devices, pervasive computing, and the internet of things.
Here are several milestones in the development of physical and digital integration. 1932 Jay B.
Nash wrote in Spectatoritis: "within our grasp, it is our mechanical slaves that make the leisure of Greek citizens possible, this is far more than the 12 to 15 years old of each of his free men . . . . . . When we walk into a room, just press the button and we can get on the road.
Another slave sits at twenty.
Our thermostat works four hours a day to adjust the heat in our home.
The other was sitting day and night in our automatic fridge.
They drive our car. run our motors;
Make our shoes shine
They actually eliminate time and space through their speed.
2-January 13, 1946-
Dick Tracy and members of the police force made their debut as wrist radios worn as watches, becoming one of the most recognizable icons in the comics.
1949 when 27 years-
Old Norman Joseph woodlands drew four lines on the beach in Miami Beach.
Later, Woodland, who became an IBM engineer, received (
With Bernard Silver.
The first linear bar code patent in 1952.
More than two decades later, another IBMer, George Laurel, was one of those who was primarily responsible for improving the concept of supermarket use. 1955 Edward O.
Thorp envisioned the first wearable computer, a cigarette box --
A simulation device used to predict the sole purpose of roulette.
With the help of Claude Shannon, it developed further and tested in Las Vegas in the summer of 1961, but it was not discovered until 1966.
Morton Hailey won the first patent in October 4, 1960. ever head-Installed monitor.
1967 Hubert Upton invented a simulated wearable computer with glasses
Install the monitor to help with lip reading.
On October 29, 1969, the first message was sent through ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet.
In January 23, 1973, Mario cadero obtained the first patent for passive readingwrite RFID tag.
General product code June 26, 1974 (UPC)
The first time in the supermarket to use the label to call shopping.
1977 CC Collins assistance to the blind
The wearable pound on the head-
The mounting camera that converts the image into a tactile mesh on the vest.
A member of Carnegie in early 1980
Mellon computer science department installation Micro
Switch in Coke vending machine and connect it to PDP-
10 computers so that they can see on the computer terminal how many bottles are in the machine and if they are cold.
1981 during high school, Steve Mann developed a backpack
Imaging System and lighting kit.
"1990 Olivetti has developed an active badge system that uses infrared signals to convey a person's position.
In September 1991, Xerox's Mark Weiser published the 21 st century computer in the journal Scientific American. using the term "ubiquitous computing" and "concrete virtual" to describe his vision of "How special elements of hardware and software are connected via wires, radio waves, and infrared, will be everywhere, no one will notice their existence.
1993 Thad Starner at MIT started using
The computer and the head being manipulated
Display as a wearable device.
1993 Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and dore Seligmann from Columbia University developed KARMA--Knowledge-
Maintenance assistance based on augmented reality.
KARMA covers wireframe schematic and Maintenance Instructions on anything fixed.
Mik Lamming and Mike Flynn at 1994 Xerox Europe Park show forget-Me-
No, a wearable device that communicates through a wireless transmitter and records interactions with people and devices, storing information in a database.
1994 Steve Mann developed a wearable wireless webcam that is considered the first example of a life record.
The word "context" September 1994
B use aware first '. N. Schilit and M. M.
"Spreading active map information to mobile hosts" network, Volume 18, Issue 5.
1995 Siemens has set up a special department within its mobile phone business department to develop and launch a GSM data module called "M1" for machinesto-machine (M2M)
Industrial applications enable machines to communicate over wireless networks.
The first M1 module is used for point of sale (POS)
Terminals in vehicle remote information processing, remote monitoring and tracking applications.
On December 1995, Nicholas negompert and Neil Gershenfeld of MIT wrote in Wired: "hardware and software can follow you comfortably, and they must be integrated into the software . . . . . . The time difference between crazy ideas and shipping products narrowed so fast that now, oh, about a week. ”October 13-
University of Mellon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Georgia Institute of Technology
The first IEEE wearable computer International Seminar was held in MA Cambridge. 1999 The Auto-ID (
For automatic identification)
The center was established at MIT.
Sanjay Sarma, David Brock and Kevin Ashton link objects to the Internet through RFID tags, turning RFID into a network technology.
1999 Neil geshenfeld wrote in "when things start to think": "We should try to make computers not notable, other than seeking to make them ubiquitous . . . . . . .
For all reports of Internet and World Wide Web growth, a bigger change is coming as the number of things using the web exceeds the number of people.
The real promise of connecting computers is to liberate people by embedding solutions to problems in things around us.
David Brok, January 1, 2001
Head of automotive department at MIT
ID Center, titled "Electronic Product Code (EPC)
: Naming scheme for physical objects ":" More than 20
General product code for five years (
UPC or "bar code ")
Help streamline the retail checkout and inventory process . . . . . . Utilization [the Internet’s]
Infrastructure, we propose a new object recognition scheme, Electronic Product Code (EPC)
Throughout the life cycle of the product, it uniquely identifies the object and facilitates tracking.
On March 18, 2002, Chana Schoenberger and Bruce Upbin published the internet of things on Forbes.
They quoted Kevin Ashton from MIT.
ID Center: "We need an internet of things, a standardized way for computers to understand the real world.
On April 2002, Jim Waldo wrote in the Frontier Journal of Information Systems: "virtual organization, pervasive computing, and Edge network infrastructure": "… The Internet is becoming a communication structure for devices to talk to services, and services to talk to other services.
On the Internet, humans are rapidly becoming a minority, and most stakeholders are computational entities, who interact with other computational entities without human intervention.
On June 2002, Glover Ferguson, chief scientist at Accenture, wrote in the Harvard Business Review: "Let your object call it my object": "It is no exaggeration to say that one day, A small label may change your business.
That day may not be far away.
In January 2003, Bernard travrest and others.
Release "project JXTA-
C: enable the Internet of things at the 36 International Conference on Systems Science in Hawaii hics'03 ".
They wrote: "Open
The source project JXTA was launched a year ago to specify a set of standard protocols for ad hoc, pervasive, peersto-
Peer-to-peer computing is the foundation of the upcoming internet of things.
On October 2003, Sean Dodson wrote in The Guardian: "Last month, a controversial network connected millions of labels that already exist in the world (
And billions of dollars on their way)
Start at McCormick square convention center on the banks of Lake Michigan.
About 1,000 delegates from retail, technology and academia gathered to launch electronic product codes (EPC)network.
Their goal is to replace the global bar code with a universal system that can provide a unique number for every object in the world.
Some have begun to call the Internet the internet of things ".
Science August 2004
Novel Writer Bruce Stirling introduced the concept of "Spime" in SIGGRAPH, describing it as "a new word for a fictional object that is still speculative.
Spime also has a kind of person who makes and uses it, and this kind of person is called "Wrangler ".
With regard to Spimes, the most important thing is to know their precise position in space and time.
They have history.
They are recorded, tracked, counted, and always associated with the story . . . . . . In the future, the life of an object begins on a graphic screen.
It was born in the digital age.
Its design specifications accompany its life.
It is inseparable from the original digital blueprint that rules the material world.
If you ask, the object will tell you everything the expert will tell you.
Because it wants you to be an expert.
G, September 2004.
Lawton's on the machine. to-
"Machine Technology Accelerates Development" in computers: "There are more machines --
Defined as something with mechanical, electrical, or electronic properties
In the world than people.
More and more machines are connected to the internet . . . . . . M2M is based on the idea that when a machine is connected to the Internet, it has more value, and the network becomes more valuable as more and more machines are connected to the Internet.
On October 2004, Scientific American Neil geshenfield, Raffey krecrian, and Danny Cohen wrote in the internet of things: "There will be a range of benefits in enabling everyday items to connect to the data network: make it easier for homeowners to configure their lights and switches, reduce the cost and complexity of building construction, and assist with home care.
At present, many alternative standards are competing --
This situation reminds people of the early days of the Internet, when computers and networks had a variety of incompatible types.
On October 25, 2004, Robert Weissman wrote in The Boston Globe: "The ultimate vision, hatched in the MIT and Berkeley university labs in his 1990 s, it is the "internet of things" that connects thousands of sensor mesh networks ".
They will monitor goods in containers, air pipes in hotels, fish in refrigerated trucks, and lighting and heating at home and industrial plants.
However, the emerging sensor industry faces many obstacles, including the need for a network standard that can cover its various applications, competition with other wireless standards, and security panic over corporate data transmission, there are also privacy issues that plague other emerging technologies.
2005 a group of faculty members of the Interactive Design Institute Ivrea (IDII)
In Ivrea, Italy, a cheap and simple Arduino has been developed --to-use single-
Board micro-controllers for students to use when developing interactive projects.
Adrian McEwen and Hakim when designing the internet of things: "Combined with the expansion of the cabling software environment, it has had a huge impact on the physical computing world.
On November 2005, the International Telecom Union released its seventh report in its Internet series called "Internet of Things.
On June 22, 2009, Kevin Ashton wrote in RFID magazine: "I may be wrong, but I'm pretty sure the phrase" Internet of Things "is the title of my speech at P & G (P&G)in 1999.
The new idea of RFID in P & G supply chain and-red-
The hot topic of the Internet is not just a good way to get the attention of executives.
Summed up an important point of view
Ten years later, after the internet of things became the title of everything from an article in Scientific American to the name of the EU conference, people were still often misunderstood.
"Thanks to Sanjay Sarma and Neil Gershenfeld for their comments on this draft schedule.