Does anyone remember Enron? In 2002, the wheels of many high-speed flying companies fell to the point where it was almost difficult to remember that at the beginning of the year, the shocking business story that caught everyone's attention was Texas-
Stories of corruption, greed and sheer stupidity are well known by the name of Enron.
Now, with the end of the year, the pride and joy of Ken Ray has been added to the bankruptcy trough by United Airlines, World Communications, andhuaxin and dozens of other companies, the Adventures of Enron have been moldy.
The Commission's investigation was hard, but the flagstaff of the deregulated fraud campaign had disappeared from the headlines.
The continuing economic woes of the United States can be traced back to many factors ---
The aftermath of Sept.
11. Bush's economic team is not well managed and has now left completely. after leaving, it is still a painful hangover --go '90s.
But when we look back on the big story of 2002, Enron's plight should be the story that savvy economic observers have been sticking.
The business cycle comes and goes, but structural changes caused by government driven specifically by lobbying and ideology can cause permanent damage.
The Rise and Fall of Enron is more visible to everyone than any other company, and what happens when the government intends to look for another way, greed is allowed to bloom fully.
The Enron incident is no exception.
This is a natural result of years of deregulation and special policies.
Lobbying for political interests
Of course, everyone plays this game, but Enron is the best (
In the end, though, one can argue that this is also the worst. )
As for half of the technology and business equation, the 2002 ratio is proving to be another year of the Silicon Valley downturn, waiting for a return that seems never ready to come true.
Of course, the Internet has been growing, or at least everyone has seen their spam load continue to surge, and of course, computers continue to become cheaper, faster and able to do something cleaner, but overall, to the consternation of science fiction writers all over the world, 2002 reconfirmed that the 21st century is not yet a futuristic amusement park.
Forget the jetpack we should have right now--
On the contrary, everyone is worried about whether it is legal to copy a episode of Song Fei biography to a DVD!
Keep reading and learn a summary of some of the top stories of the year.
The year of Napster's copyright finally died in 2002, but the document --
Its trading phenomenon continues to increase among other peers. to-peer networks.
In response, the entertainment industrypiracy efforts.
It coaxed some members of the United States. S.
The House has passed a bill that requires electronic manufacturers to embed copyright protection in their equipment, and another bill that allows copyright owners to invade copyright
Network of infringing transactions
Fortunately, neither effort has made progress. -
But there will always be the next Congress.
The record industry also hinted that it might start suing individual vendors and increasing the pressure on colleges and universities to chase song --
Like other things the music industry does, these moves make it even more embarrassing, and the industry now seems to be hated by everyone ---
Consumers and artists. (
However, to the lab's credit, they seem to be slowly changing their way.
By the end of this year, they have licensed music for many subscriptions --
Based on legal songs
Although there is no scope for the provision of illegal services. )
There are some highlights for out-enemiesof-
Control copyright law.
On October, Lawrence Lessig, a professor at Stanford University law school, advocated in the Supreme Court the repeal of the Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act;
The judges are expected to decide in 2003.
On Tuesday, Russian software company Elcomsoft was acquitted, the first criminal defendant prosecuted under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
Spam, I this year, AOL won the biggest verdict ever on spammers-$7 million. And even now-Senator-
Elected Elizabeth Dole was attacked in court for her unsolicited email
She sent an email request to North Carolina voters during the Senate campaign.
If you feel the septic tank and sexy photos in your inbox are more exciting than ever, it's because you are. One anti-
Brightmail's spam software company reported that 40% of emails
As of November 2002, the mail received by its customers was spam, compared with 8% in September 2001.
Spam attacks have become so huge and irritating that some networks on Slashdot have found a new way to fight back. One industry-
Due to some anti-spam, when he started to receive a lot of unsolicited spam, the spammers of size were very angrySpam duty officer
Of course, he is now threatening to sue.
If there's any benefit-
More and more spam attacks, this is to prevent
Spam software and technology company.
This year, software like free SpamAssassin has become a necessary feature for e-commerce in many companiesmail accounts.
However, auto-tagging may have caused free mail for spam-
Electronic Frontier Foundation and other speech advocatescalled "false-
Active "often captures harmless information such as Evites and e-
Mail communication is also on the spam network.
The rise of blogs has been with us for many years, but 2002 of blogs are a year when blogs come together as a sport.
Everyone is no longer worried about explaining that "blog" is the abbreviation of "blog", defining it as "a personal web page that is updated frequently every time the theme appears, at the top, old entries arranged in reverse order for new entries were added.
"New or improved software tools make
Let technical users hear them.
Spurred by the 9/11 incident and the large number of "war blogs" that emerged after the war in Afghanistan, they summoned up the conservative beat ---
Starting to accept the idea that new ideas, valuable conversations, and even original news, may emerge from this newly democratized "chatty classroom.
"In December, it was mainly the blog class that allowed Trent Lott's shameful pro-story to be circulated.
After losing the ball in the mainstream media, apartheid commented at the Strom Thurmond birthday party. Lott's now-
The unstable control of power proves that although the Internet economy may have been in trouble, Internet politics has just begun to exert its strength.
If your company has $40 billion in cash and makes about a billion a month, you will do whatever you want.
You will feel very big. -
Go beyond the traditional market and reinvent the world technically.
Perhaps it is this idea that has led to Microsoft's expansion in all aspects this year;
The company has introduced so many products in so many industries that it no longer thinks it's just an OS monopoly, which doesn't seem accurate.
The company continued its silent attacks on Hollywood, releasing a new version of the Windows Media "platform" that further expanded its long term
More and more successful terms, the goal is to make Windows Media the main file format for digital audio and video files.
The company has also released a new "flavor" of Windows "---
Media Center Edition"-
Bundled with TV
Recording ability, a feature that media companies have never liked.
This year also saw this
As a PC product for Windows phones, tablets and Xbox Live, this is the online service for the company's consoles.
Microsoft is still under threat. -
For example, it mobile phone business has encountered some difficulties, Linux is a growing industry.
Poses a threat to the Windows Server family.
But what's the biggest obstacle? -
Strong government regulation of its activities-
When a federal judge approved a slap in the face of Microsoft in November, Microsoft failed --on-the-
Anti-monopoly settlement with the Ministry of Justice.
Now the company is ready to go wherever it wants.
Free Software: Don't call it a comeback. In 2002, free software did not make headlines, at least in the glorious years after 90 s.
But when Wall Street and mainstream media stopped paying attention, one interesting thing happened: Free --
Software programmers are constantly working on their work, improving their code, releasing new products, and expanding their field. The slow-
The mobile Mozilla browser project finally delivered an available browser.
Yes, it's much longer than anyone expected, but the end result is very competitive with Microsoft, with a little progress every week.
2002 is also a year when desktop productivity apps are starting to enjoy higher visibility.
Programmers working on projects like AbiWord word processors don't necessarily care about getting Microsoft out of software hegemony (
Although some of them don't mind! )--
They're just having fun, doing what they like to do, writing code, without having to worry about what features the marketing department wants, or the company's layoff might end up doing two years of work. The free-software dot-
The Coms are gone most of the time and may never come back, but the free software is still there and has been getting better and better.
The merger of AOL Time Warner makes it hard to remember why, a few years ago, anyone thought it might be a good idea to put AOL and Time Warner under the same company banner.
We may be able to use chalk.
At the time, every thought seemed good.
Since the merger that happened at the same time as the bubble burst, the merged company has seen nothing but trouble.
Revenue from online services has been hurt by the bad advertising market, and fewer people are willing to log in to dialup service;
The company has also been criticized for its slow growth in broadband services, and the SEC is investigating the company's alleged overly aggressive accounting practices.
AOL's troubles have hurt other members of the company, whose share price has fallen more than 70% since the merger.
In response, AOL Time Warner tried this year to remove evidence of all mergers happening.
It went through high in July.
By the end of the summer, chairman Steve Case was the only former executive at AOL who held a senior position at the merged company.
AOL also released a new version of its connection software and announced a major plan in December to add content from media brands to its online services.
But industry experts and investors are not very happy with the move. -
Especially when companies recognize advertising and e-commerce.
Business revenue could fall by 50% next year.
What is the next step for AOL Time Warner? Maybe, someone suggested that it should go back to the boring, old state
Time Warner media
Ashcroft's secret arrest of the attack, poor access to lawyers, increased surveillance of American citizens, and neighbor's proposal to monitor neighbors ---
In 2002, the government gave civil liberties a lot of concern.
But the activists did win a lot of battles in court and national discussions.
John Ashcroft's tips for action
Defamation plan against civilian workers-
Truck drivers and trucks included. -
The Homeland Security Act, which was signed into law in November, explicitly prohibits any "suspicious" behavior.
The Department of Defense's comprehensive information awareness system is a large-scale monitoring program designed to monitor all Americans in an attempt to detect acts of terrorism, and now there is extensive debate in the media, and Congress may hold hearings next year.
If TIA does start working, then it will not have a set of rules that limit its legitimate use.
Nevertheless, those who care about the erosion of civil liberties now have good reason to worry.
The Justice Department is persistent in its efforts to expand acceptable law enforcement, and the intimidated public seems to be on its side to a large extent.
If there is another attack on the so-called "home", or if there is a war in Iraq, will Americans really worry that their government is going beyond the Bill of Rights? Let's hope so.
The pain of pop music
Ups strongly opposed one of the most intrusive forms of online advertising in 2002-pop-up ads.
All third parties are banned onlineparty pop-Advertising in its 8.
Earthlink provides users with free software to prevent them.
The new iteration of Mozilla and Netscape Navigator provides users with a transfer-off pop-
But Microsoft's Internet Explorer is not keeping up with the trend. The pop-
When online advertising is still trying to find new ways to deliver company information in the face of the economic downturn, a rebound will occur.
At the end of this year, however, there was a glimmer of good news in the online advertising market;
The interactive advertising agency reported that business grew by 1% from the second quarter of this year to the third quarter.
This is the first time the online advertising business has shown substantial improvement over the previous quarter for six consecutive quarters ---
All the Bush administration's attacks on the environment this year are attacks on the environment, with no new oil drilling at the Arctic National Wildlife Sanctuary or in coastal waters near California and Florida.
The Bush administration has pledged to spend $0. 235 billion on Florida's existing oil lease, but is continuing to advance drilling at the Alaska reserve and near California.
A politically divided Congress means that the energy bill authorizing drilling in Alaska is dead in the Senate, but it is likely to come back to vote before the current Republicans --
Control Congress next year.
The Bush administration finally acknowledged that,
Indeed, global warming does exist, and it hinders any action to address the problem and promote the importance of more scientific research.
But Bush-appointed officials did not hold back when they relaxed their cleaning.
Air control over polluting factories lifted the Clinton administration's ban on the use of snowmobiles in Yellowstone and approved more oil drilling on the national coast of Padre Island.
Modest increase in federal fuel
Economic standards mean automakers will have to get more miles per gallon from SUVs in the next few years.
But environmental activists scoffed at this insignificant growth and laughed at another concession to industry.
With Republicans now leading key federal and congressional committees in Washington looking for the U. S.
Environmental policy for more Industries
Friendly next year.